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Law Dictionary

Errors and Omissions Insurance – A Professional Necessity

A profession may be lucrative enough but it can also be the cause of unexpected expenses. This usually happens when mistakes occur in the giving of one’s professional service. Even with the education and training, a professional may still commit errors that can lead to damage claims. After all, human beings are always prone to commit errors and omissions. Unfortunately, such monetary demands may be too big it can push someone to the brink of bankruptcy.
No matter how skilled a professional is, mistakes can never be totally avoided. These are like ghosts that will always haunt one even as he tries to focus on executing his job. Since it cannot be completely avoided, the best measure to be taken is to prepare for possible expenses that will be incurred in such cases. Being insured under an errors and omissions policy is necessary.
This type of insurance is a guarantee that there is always enough money needed to satisfy damage claims. For example, doctors who may face suits because of malpractice may not worry about the consequential expenses if they have already prepared money for such events. Even insurance underwriters may need to be covered with it too. Some minor mistakes can be enough cause for litigation, which can cost a lot of money.
Real estate appraisers are definitely just as prone to commit human errors. Any wrongful appraisal that can result in harm to the financial conditions of others may require remuneration. If one is already safeguarded with errors and omissions insurance, so he won’t have to worry where he will find money for the repayment. All that he needs to do is to ask his insurance provider to give him the necessary funds for the said purpose.
The most common use of this type of insurance is for defense claims. Oftentimes, when a client becomes a victim of professional malpractice, his only way to get back his money and reputation is by seeking the protections of the laws to achieve both. Therefore, he may file cases against the professional whom he has an issue with. The professional may want to negotiate with the client first but he will still be required to pay for the claims. Otherwise, he will need money too in order to defend himself in court.
Obviously, the best time to buy errors and omissions insurance is before the practice of a profession is made. Costly mistakes can occur very early in a career. With such safeguard early in place, then these can certainly be covered already. However, this is not an excuse to commit errors again. Otherwise, the worse harm on one’s name is made. This is something that cannot be repaired by insurance policies of any kind.…

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The Job of a Court Reporter

Before investing the time, effort and funds into any long term career it is important to have a good grasp of the field and the profession you would like to venture into.
If you find yourself curious about what life would be like as a court reporter, here are some important facts to understanding the profession.
The law requires that every spoken word in a courtroom be documented for further use. This makes the job of a court reporter in demand in all major cities. As a court reporter, your job will have you responsible for producing word-for-word transcripts of anything spoken in a legal setting. This could mean a courtroom, legislature, meeting, or correspondence. You will find yourself working with judges, lawyers, clients and other legal staff in law offices, public buildings, or government agencies on a daily basis. Many court reporters work freelance, and your hours will depend on the location and the demands of the assignment you have been hired for.
To do the job, a court reporter uses a special stenograph machine with 22 keys. A computer program connected to the stenograph machine converts the text into a document for use. The information is printed out in condensed form and then kept for future reference. Often the text will be formatted into a book form to stand as the official record of the proceedings of the trail if there should be an appeal.
As the transcriptions provide a factual record of everything that is said during a court proceeding, it is crucial that the reporter is 100% accurate. A court reporter must have the ability to keep track of information even during distracting circumstances. They must also be able to distance themselves from the case and focus solely on the task at hand. This is especially important during cases that can be particularly emotional or even disturbing to listen to. A successful court reporter will also have excellent organization and listening skills, and exemplary spelling and grammar. They will have to sit and focus for long periods of time during court cases, and an excellent command of the English language is a must.
There are a variety of specialized schools offering legal programs, some of which can be taken online. Students will learn how to efficiently use a stenograph machine and the legal terminology and practice needed to document court proceedings. While you are completing your program, it would be beneficial to gain some experience through volunteer work and job shadowing. Try inquiring at City Hall if you can speak with any court reporters who can give you some career advice.
Once you enter the field as a court reporter, you will usually spend your first few years working in various legal aspects, such as assisting in other legal settings before you are experience enough to take full responsibility as the transcriber. The job does not just end in the courtroom, however. There may also be tasks to complete before or after each court session, depending on the type of case. Typically you may be asked to produce copies of the transcription records to be used by judges, attorneys and other individuals involved in a particular case. In some cases, you may be asked to use your skills for inquiries or depositions.…

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Common Law

Learn the Facts About Court Reporting

Court reporting is an important job. The legal system needs someone to record the legal processes that go on with trials. This done with short handed typing that is used to record so that no words are missed when he or she is typing. The other kind is a voice recorder that types everything that is said from the lawyers, witnesses and others in the courtroom during the time of the trial.
Becoming a court reporter is not necessarily that easy. This person is required to take up to two years of school and get the degree of an associate before he or she will be qualified. This degree uses the same classes as any other undergraduate degree. The student is still required to take basic classes in math, science, history and quite a bit of English.
These students desiring to be in court reporting are required to learn voice recognition software and be able to be successful at using it. The voice writing is highly technical so the student will need to spend one to three hours a night on homework. Using the short handed method will take longer for the students and they will need to go to college for at least 2-4 years to be able to learn enough to be successful.
Despite having a degree, there could still be real time experience necessary before a court reporter is actually hired for the job. Even after they complete the training while under an apprentice they are still going to need to practice their skills. The reporters will still need to attend classes to keep up with their skills.
These court reporters are going to need to be very fast typists. There are two different associations that require their members to type over 200 words per minute. One organization requires them to type 225 words per minute while the other needs to type 250. The one with the higher words requires its members to record verbatim what is said in the courtroom.
Many of the court reporters work as freelance reporters. They often do a lot of work outside the courtroom. They can do religious services or webcasts where transcription is needed. They could also do transcription for television networks that make TV better for the deaf. These people could also be employed as freelance journalists. There are many things they can do that require fast typing to keep up with verbal instructions.
Court reporters can make anywhere from 30,000 to 60,000 a year. There is a program that will help to make reporters earn more money. This program makes it possible for the reporters to earn a continuing income when their work is sold as a research tool for witnesses.
Court reporting is a very necessary profession. It allows the court proceedings to be recorded so they can be accessed later. It makes the court system flow smoothly because of the organization they bring to the legal system. It would not be as efficient as it is now without these reporters. This is certainly a job that will remain around for the long haul.…

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General Article

Trailer Park Boys in the Tradition of the Comedic Criminal

Trailer Park Boys in the Tradition of the Comedic Criminal

This is the tradition of Robin Hood, who first appeared (in rhyme) in 1377 C.E. He remained a popular figure in Scottish lore, appearing in ballads and in plays (many lost to time).

But it took over a century of adventuring for Robin Hood to begin his most famous practice, his saving grace; stealing from the rich and giving to the poor.

It was in Elizabethan England’s 1600s that Robin became a noble thief, returning Norman plunder to the good English people of British sovereign Sir Richard the Lionheart, then abroad on crusade. Around this time Robin also took on the moniker Sir Robin.

Robin made his first appearance in published print in 1838 and remained popular through more serialized adventures, where Maid Marian entered the legend. More English novels followed. Howard Pyle’s 1883 The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood of Great Renown in Nottinghamshire, is considered a classic children’s book.

Robin remained the star of page and stage until he became the screen hero we imagine today. The first Robin Hood short was released in 1908. Five more had been produced by 1914. Douglas Fairbanks Sr. virtually owned the character with his 1922 hit Robin Hood until the classic 1938 Warner Brothers film, The Adventures of Robin Hood, with Errol Flynn. Flynn was so effective and beloved as Robin that later productions presented The Son of Robin Hood or other related characters instead of recasting to replace Flynn.

None of this indicates a comic tradition. Robin Hood is an adventure character, not a comedic character, his vehicles are not considered comedies.

But when you look at the tradition of the comedic criminal, time and again you see a retelling of the Robin Hood legend. This is because everything about the Robin Hood stories works in the comedic world: A likable but imperfect fellow who thwarts a corrupted power system; an antiestablishment rebel who is a criminal by virtue of his stance against the corrupt system, not because of any innate evil or personality flaw; a rascal who delights in overturning the status quo of the rich and beautiful, happily doling out justice on behalf of the common man or woman who, without him, would have no way to overcome.

As we will see, comedic stories about criminals are Robin Hood stories virtually without exception.

But let’s not be so fast to cast Robin Hood off as a character without vast comedic possibilities. Daffy Duck played Robin to superb comic effect; portraying him as a lazy, pompous bungler, while Porky Pig’s Friar Tuck did the heavy lifting.

In the 1970s, Disney made an animated Robin Hood film, presenting him as a wily fox to outwit Peter Ustinov’s idiot Prince John. Comedic, if not exactly comedy gold.

One of the rare instances of a situation comedy with a criminal as the central character is the Mel Brooks-created When Things Were Rotten, starring Get Smart’s Dick Gautier and Bernie Kopell as Robin Hood and Friar Tuck.

Robin Hood returned to television in a Canadian hour-long fantasy drama, which has little place in our discussion of comedy. It wasn’t Robin’s first stint as a dramatic lead on television. The 1950s black-and-white The Adventures of Robin Hood was directed squarely at kids. The half-hour adventure series was a popular format with kids, including the hit shows Superman, Sky King and many others.

Thereafter society’s favorite outlaw hero has enjoyed several big-screen adaptations. One great modern Robin Hood film is Robin and Marian, featuring James Bond Sean Connery, Breakfast at Tiffany’s Audrey Hepburn and Jaws’ Robert Shaw as the aging Robin, Marian and Sheriff of Nottingham,.

Mel Brooks took a second swipe at the Robin Hood legend, giving it a big-screen parody treatment with 1993’s Men In Tights to unspectacular artistic and commercial success.

But to find a comedic retelling of this paradigm, one needn’t go directly back to Robin Hood, only indirectly.

Let’s take a look at a few stories in the tradition of the comedic criminal and see if the Robin Hood legend doesn’t lay just beneath the surface.

As a control, here’s the Robin Hood story in a nutshell: Good-hearted outlaw Robin Hood, with his lady love Marian and his band of Merry Men, enlists the peasants of Sherwood Forest to thwart the evil schemes of invading Norman Prince John and his local representative, the Sheriff of Nottingham.

Here’s director Alan Parker’s 1976 musical comedy Bugsy Malone: Good-hearted gangster Bugsy Malone, with his lady love Blousey and his allies Fat Sam and his boys recruits the down-and-out depression-era denizens of the city to thwart the evil schemes of invading gangster Dandy Dan.

Here’s John Landis’ 1980 film comedy The Blues Brothers: Good-hearted musicians Jake and Elwood Blues, with their band, recruit the …

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General Article

Criminology 101 – Excerpt From Current Research in Classical Criminology

Criminology 101 – Excerpt From Current Research in Classical Criminology

Section Introduction: Awakening the Assassin’s Ascension:

Awakening the assassin’s ascension alludes to the potential within humans to plot, scheme and murder. Mental proclivities mirror the brainpower of individual initiative, inspiration and intention. To inflict all manner of abnormality find culpability within the thinking processes. Mindset refers to what the brain does a result of cerebral chemical interactions. It’s a metaphor to describe the result of complex psycho-physiology in connection with ideas, thoughts and action. An illusion reflecting the internal workings of the brain, the mind offers a symbolic reference point for ease of communal discussion. We often explain behavior by what’s going on inside someone’s mind. Sometimes we say this is a state of mind, an attitude or ways of thinking. All of us are affected. Overall, the mind and its set of mental configurations relates to our inner neural network of human design.

The depth, width of complexity of human ideation defies simple explanation. A multitude of theories assert a range of cause-effect reasons. Nebulous notions of spurious “scientific” research have only touched the surface of the “iceberg” of human existence. A vast realm of consciousness, as well as unconsciousness, hides below the surface of reality. Tenuous definitions of ill-defined possible causes of human violence remain a submerged mystery. Yet, throughout the media, academia and public perception, we think we know reasons why people maim, torture and murder others. We foster the myth, magic and metaphor in discussions of criminality. While mindset reflects ideas, fantasies and limitless imagination, motives foster the fruition of touching reality. From the inner world of the psychic sphere, we want to act out the things we think about. Mischief stems from the ideation that occurs within the framework of thoughts. Our human nature is a composite of the ongoing struggle between personal issues of good and evil.

History testifies to the myriad examples of debauchery, destruction and death. Misbehavior, disobedience and assorted acts of deviance surface from the mindset of the beholder. We are the creators of both positive and negative results. Sometimes, we pursue our inherent proclivities and murder other people in the process of getting what we want. People make choices for better or for worse. Some find creative ways to act on desires, urges and cravings. Others go to extremes and commit deadly acts. In some recent research, the allegation has been made that “killing is fundamentally in our nature” as a human species. In terms of the view from that of evolutionary psychology, humans are seen as having evolved a mindset adaptive to killing other humans. Certain studies from this perspective hint at the inclination people have to take a life for a variety of reasons. Individually, each person offers a disposition to murder given particular circumstances that may be unique to him or her. These situations could relate to a person’s willingness to consider murder as an option. Especially if the options come under the press of uniquely dangerous conditions. Usually, these situations pertain to self-defense, protecting another from deadly harm, or similar conditions of homicidal justifications. None the less, indications follow a trail to the possibility that everyone is capable of murdering someone else. Circumstances define the motive, means and opportunity to terminate a life.

As such, it is suggested that males, in particular, indicate a readiness to kill when status, reputation or sexuality might be threatened. This might be a matter related to competition relative to matters of personal gain. Gain is considered against the risks involved in the commission of the act. And, concerns aspects of pleasure versus pain the acquisition of the desired goal. In a simplistic format, we ready, willing and able to commit serious criminality, where for emotional or material rewards. There’s always a motive, an intention and something to be gained. For criminologists, the sleight of hand tactics concern figuring out the “whydunit of a whodunit”. Investigative efforts become one of solving a mysterious puzzle. It’s called human nature and the darkness runs deep into realms of the imaginations. Criminality is the “X-Files” of human behavior. Dark, devious and deadly, the humanistic proclivity toward violence is legendary. Raw, rough and ragged, the mental motions of psychic mayhem confound the best of detectives, forensic experts and pseudo-social scientists. Since there is no quick and easy feel good answer, the term “cryptocriminology”, or “crypto-criminology” has been coined.

The suggestion offers the option to highlight the complexity of human thinking. And, underscore the fact, that human thinking processes do not an effortless, undemanding trouble-free explanation. Mental proclivities might be beyond comprehension for the foreseeable future. Crypto-criminology is a word suggesting the vast mysteries contained within the human brain. We don’t have simple answers detailing the scope of human motivations. Our inclinations reside inside the expanse …

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General Article

Where Do I Report Email Fraud to the Government?

Where Do I Report Email Fraud to the Government?

If you or someone you know has been subjected to email fraud you might be asking yourself: Where can I report email fraud to the government? In this article we will be discussing how you can report this type of fraud.

It is unfortunate that some people lose hundreds and thousands of dollars to cyber crime. The fraudulent offers that are sent to us via email are very attractive and they play on our emotions.

Let’s briefly discuss the four main types of email fraud:

1. Requests for help: This type of fraud takes the form of an email proposing a large monetary reward in exchange for your help. The most common type of fraud is the 419 scams which are named after the violation of section 419 of the Nigerian criminal code. Typically you will get an email from someone claiming they are related to a government official who has recently passed away and they have inherited tens of millions of dollars. They ask you to help get the money out of the country in return for a very large percentage of it. It is then requested that you pay legal fees and taxes. Once you have paid these amounts you have just been scammed and you will never hear from these people again.

2. Spoofing: This describes deceitful email activity where the sender will impersonate someone else in the sender’s box. This is a common way to transport viruses online. It is used in almost all cyber fraud in conjunction with another type of email fraud.

3. Phishing: This type of fraud is received in the form of a message from an existing company which perhaps has a business relationship with the receiver. The email may ask for personal banking details or to confirm their banking password. The email looks legitimate as they have copied banking logos into the mail. Once you have entered your banking details unfortunately the con man can do whatever he will with your details.

4. Bogus offers: These typically offer you a popular item or a service at a reduced price. It may be a new DVD that has not been released yet but you can get it now. Once you have paid your item will not be delivered as the whole process was a scam.

So where do I report email fraud to the government?

• Report the scam online to the Internet crime complaint center. They will forward the information to all relevant law enforcement organizations. This is where to go:

• Report the fraud to the Federal Trade Commission. You can email them with all the important information you have along with the original email to [email protected] or file online at .

• Report a 419 or other Internet money scams to @

• Contact your local police department with the information you have.

Every time that you report cyber crime you are helping to reduce the amount of online crime. The next time you ask yourself “Where do I report email fraud to the government?” simply refer back to this article.…

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General Article

Criminals Violating Family Rights – Why Do We Have to Put Up With It?

Criminals Violating Family Rights – Why Do We Have to Put Up With It?

Surely we have the right to walk down our streets without being attacked or abused and to be able to go out and socialise with our friends and not to be afraid of being glassed,stabbed or murdered. It should be safe for women to go out alone without the fear of being drugged, raped or any other violent crimes committed against her.

Why is respect for each other no longer being taught in the home. Violence now seems to be tolerated in society by people in general, by our lawmakers and by the courts. The weak sentences handed down to criminals is not even a deterrent, is it not time that much harsher penalties be handed out to these thugs to make them realise that it is unacceptable to treat people the way they do?

It use to be that a person’s life was worth something, especially to them and their family. Now, if a family member is murdered, it may only be a two or three year goal term, then eighteen months off for good behaviour. Where is the good behaviour in murdering somebody, fourteen months served for taking a person’s life hardly seems fair, or am I missing something? Had this person had the right or knowledge to stand up for themselves against these criminals they may still be alive and living a normal happy life. I would like to see the laws changed, if sentences where longer and people knew they would be put away for a long stretch they may think twice before they commit the crime.

We should be given the right to protect ourselves, our families and property and not allow these bullies to make us live our lives in fear.…